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Robert Nozick's libertarian criticisms of John Rawls

Date of publication: 2017-09-04 06:50

In this first comparison, Rawls argues that it is rational for the parties to use maximin reasoning: to maximize the minimum level of primary goods that the citizens they represent might find themselves with. And maximin reasoning, he says, favors justice as fairness.

ATheory of Justice Essay Topics & Writing Assignments

The limited practical goal of Rawls's law of peoples is the elimination of the great evils of human history: unjust war and oppression, religious persecution and the denial of liberty of conscience, starvation and poverty, genocide and mass murder. The limits of this ambition mean that there will be much in the world to which Rawls's political philosophy offers no reconciliation.

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Justice as fairness is Rawls's theory of justice for a liberal society. As a member of the family of liberal political conceptions of justice it provides a framework for the legitimate use of political power. Yet legitimacy is only the minimal standard of moral acceptability a political order can be legitimate without being just. Justice sets the maximal standard: the arrangement of social institutions that is morally best.

Rawls’ criticisms of utilitarianism | Essay Bureau

Carrying through this process of mutual adjustment brings one closer to narrow reflective equilibrium : coherence among one's initial beliefs. One then adds to this narrow equilibrium one's responses to the major theories in the history of political philosophy, as well as one's responses to theories critical of political philosophizing as such. One continues to make adjustments in one's scheme of beliefs as one reflects on these alternatives, aiming for the end-point of wide reflective equilibrium , in which coherence is maintained after many alternatives have been considered.

Rawls's solution to the challenge of legitimacy in a liberal society is for political power to be exercised in accordance with a political conception of justice. A political conception of justice is an interpretation of the fundamental ideas implicit in that society's public political culture.

Like all peoples, decent peoples do not have aggressive foreign policies. Beyond this, Rawls describes one type of decent society a decent hierarchical society to illustrate what decency requires.

These abstract features must, Rawls says, be realized in certain kinds of institutions. He mentions several features that all societies that are ordered by a liberal political conception will share: fair opportunities for all citizens (especially in education and training) a decent distribution of income and wealth government as the employer of last resort basic health care for all citizens and public financing of elections.

gaseous mixture in air contains 5% 6,8 Butadiene, 6% Methane and % Ethylene, and % hydrogen. Calculate the UFL and LFL of the mixture. Is this mixture flammable? 7..

Each reasonable citizen has her own view about God and life, right and wrong, good and bad. Each has, that is, what Rawls calls her own comprehensive doctrine. Yet because reasonable citizens are reasonable, they are unwilling to impose their own comprehensive doctrines on others who are also willing to search for mutually agreeable rules. Though each may believe that she knows the truth about the best way to live, none is willing to force other reasonable citizens to live according to her beliefs, even if she belongs to a majority that has the power to enforce those beliefs on everyone.

As we have seen, the veil of ignorance disconnects the argument from the OP from any given individual’s full conception of the good. The final question addressed by TJ attempts to reconnect justice to each individual’s good, not in general, but within the well-ordered society of Justice as Fairness. A stable society is one that generates attitudes, such as are encapsulated in an effective sense of justice, that support the just institutions of that society. If, in the well-ordered society, having those attitudes is also a good for the persons who have them, then there is a “match between justice and goodness” that Rawls calls “congruence.” TJ at 855.

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