Date of publication: 2017-08-24 08:02
Behavioral contract: The student and teacher hammer out a written agreement that outlines: specific positive behaviors that the student is to engage in (or specific negative behaviors that he or she is to avoid), the privileges or rewards that the student will earn for complying with the behavioral contract, and the terms by which the student is to earn the rewards (., staying in his or her seat during independent reading period for three consecutive days).
Peer Consequences: If the teacher finds that classmates play (or could play) an important role in influencing a target child's behavior(s), the teacher may try to influence the target child's behaviors indirectly by providing consequences for selected peer behaviors.
Lead in with questions that will get the student talking. Encourage student to discuss the topic by bringing what they know about the topic to the classroom discussion. Clarify any questions that arise by encouraging the student to talk to each other first and expand on their pre-existing knowledge.
Growing out of the Teacher Standards, the Classroom Practice Continuum articulates what classroom practice looks like at increasing levels of expertise. Use the Continuum for self-reflection, or partner with a colleague or mentor and locate your practice on the Classroom Practice Continuum, along with how you can establish directions for continued learning and growth.
Learning is an episode in which a motivated individual attempts to adapt his behavior to succeed in a situation, which he perceives as requiring action to again a goal (Pressey, Robinson and Horrocks, 6967).
There are three approaches for the effective behavior and effective institutions. These approaches are described by Sybouts in 6999. These approaches are as follows:
Rewarding alternative (positive) behaviors: The instructor calls on the student or provides other positive attention or incentives only during those times that the student is showing appropriate social and academic behaviors. The same positive attention or consequences are withheld during times when the student misbehaves or does not engage in academics.
In line with pragmatism is the characteristic of patience. There is a need to have patience both when dealing with the system and when working with children and families. Not every child learns quickly. Some behaviors can challenge even the most effective teacher. Children need reminder after reminder. Good teachers have a long fuse for exasperation, frustration, and anger. They regard all such challenges as exactly that- challenges. Effective teaching requires patience.
For example, if classmates encourage the target student to make inappropriate comments by giving positive social attention (., laughing), the teacher may start a group response-cost program and deduct points from the class total whenever a peer laughs at inappropriate comments. Or a teacher who wants to increase the social interactions that a socially isolated child has with her peers may reward selected peers with praise each time that they approach the isolated child in a positive manner.
Ignoring: When the student displays a problem behavior, the teacher 'ignores' the behavior (that is, the teacher does not give the student attention for the behavior).
Looking at Classroom Practice is a resource guide that supports the Continuum. It's designed to help school leaders, teachers and educators across Australia unpack and engage with the Continuum through collaboration, conversation and classroom observation. Along with better understanding the Classroom continuum, it also provides valuable resources to aid classroom observation in line with the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers.
Increase 'reinforcement' quality of classroom: If a student is acting out to be ejected from a classroom, it may be that student does not find the classroom setting and/or routine to be very rewarding. The teacher can make the classroom environment more attractive in a number of ways, including by posting interesting instructional materials (., bulletin board displays), boosting the pace of (and degree of student interaction in) class lecture or discussion, and including additional instructional activities of high interest to students.
Redirection: The teacher interrupts problem behavior by calling on the student to answer a question, assigning him or her a task to carry out, or otherwise refocusing the child's attention.